Influences On Children’S Health

Are they truly the result of the schooling, or do they instead reflect the greater ability or motivation that leads some children to complete more schooling? The most sophisticated studies strongly suggest causal impacts of schooling on earnings as well as other positive outcomes, with the apparent social rate of return to investing in additional years of schooling averaging around 10 percent . Roughly speaking, this means that investing $10 in interventions that successfully promote the attainment of an additional year of schooling produces a $1 annual increment to participants’ earnings.

Although there is increasing recognition of the effect of services in the behavioral and social arenas on health , evidence regarding specific outcomes of these programs is limited. There is evidence that these sources of stress are not limited to low-income populations but are experienced by groups with higher socioeconomic backgrounds as signs of high blood pressure well (McAdoo, 1981; Tatum, 1987).

Cross-sectional studies conducted in the mid-1900s showed water fluoridation to have an effect on dental caries and prompted policies to fluoridate water in many cities throughout the United States. A review of studies on the effectiveness of water fluoridation conducted in the United States between 1979 and 1989 found that caries were reduced between 8 and 37 percent among adolescents . There is some evidence that water fluoridation has been particularly beneficial for communities of low socioeconomic status (National Research Council, 1993; Riley, Lennon, and Ellwood, 1999), perhaps attributable to their disproportionate burden and lower access to dental care. Evidence of the effectiveness of water fluoridation in reducing dental caries has led to other approaches to introduce fluoride, including the addition of fluoride in toothpastes and topical fluoride treatment by dental professionals.

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In more recent years, it has become clear that the nature of health services, rather than simply their presence, is important. The benefits of a strong primary care orientation are even more salutary for children than for adults . Although few would debate the relevance of health services to improving individual health, many have actively debated the contribution of health services to the health of populations.

  • Improving physical wellness consists of building physical strength, flexibility and endurance while taking safety precautions including medical self-care and appropriate use of a medical system as well as protecting oneself from injuries and harm.
  • Optimal physical wellness is met through a combination of good exercise and eating habits.
  • Being physically fit and feeling physically well often leads to the psychological benefits of enhanced self-esteem, self control, determination and a sense of direction.
  • The physical dimension of wellness involves personal responsibility, disease prevention, and care for minor illnesses and also knowing when professional medical attention is needed.

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Children spend more time watching television than in any other single activity except sleep . Children between the ages of 2 and 17 spend an average of 4.5 hours a day in front of screens, watching television, playing video games, and using the computer . The potentially adverse consequences of television viewing led the American Academy of Pediatrics to recommend that children under 2 years old should not watch television, and older children should not have television sets in their bedrooms . Thus, for adolescents, like their younger counterparts, peer relations continue to play a role in both adolescence and beyond. Nevertheless, researchers have long worried about the potentially spurious nature of these associations.

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One way in which television viewing or video game use is thought to be related to increased weight in children is that time spent with these media displaces physical activity. Electronic media have become an integral part of everyday life for many children in the United States and thus warrant explicit discussion.

Influences On Children’S Health

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